Pharmacokinetic study design and ELF and blood sampling schedule. In patients with normal renal function, the distribution phase ranges from 0. For linezolid, overall mean concentrations in ELF and in soft tissue were generally similar or higher than simultaneous plasma levels, although variability in tissue penetration across studies in healthy volunteers and patients was seen. Pulmonar y dispositio n o f antimicrobia l. Overall , lun g. Thirt y patient s 2 3 males , ag e
As far as drug elimination, daptomycin and vancomycin are mainly eliminated into the urine and require dosing adjustments in renally impaired patients, whereas tigecycline is eliminated into the bile and linezolid is metabolized so that in renal patients no dosing adjustments are needed for these compounds. Ceftaroline fosamil Ceftolozane Ceftobiprole. Analysis of vancomycin entry into pulmonary lining fluid by bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill patients. In a retrospective study, Jeffres and co-investigators examined the clinical significance of trough vancomycin concentrations that met target levels in patients with health care associated pneumonia due to MRSA isolates [ 15 ]. The New England Journal of Medicine.
Penetration of linezolid into soft tissues of healthy volunteers after single and multiple doses. Four ml aliquots of sterile 0. Daptomycin is bacteriocidal and active against gram-positive bacteria. Clinical microdialysis in skin and soft tissues: Subsequent manufacturing methods eliminated components that were thought to be responsible for high rates of nephrotoxicity observed with the initial product. This approach resulted in highly variable values for amounts of epithelium lining fluid and has also been criticized as overestimating epithelium lining fluid [ 12 ].